Lithium Ion Batteries

From EPRI Storage Wiki
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Basic Technology CharacteristicsSMW-Info-button.png


An image showing the general chemical structure of a lithium ion cell

How it Works: Shuttle lithium ions (Li+) between cathode (+) and anode (-). Fully charged when Lithium ions are fully intercalated in the anode.
  • High power and energy density
  • Low self-discharge rate
  • High roundtrip efficiency
  • Flexible configurations
  • Leverage cost reductions from consumer electronics and electric vehicle markets
  • Cycle life limitations, especially with high depth of discharge
  • Safety concerns around fire and explosion risk
  • Supply chain constraints
Technology Variations: Lithium Iron Phosphate (LFP),

Nickel Manganese Cobalt (NMC),

Nickel Cobalt Aluminum Oxide (NCA),

Lithium Titanate Oxide (LTO)

Applications: Diverse applications from minutes to hours duration and from small scale residential to transmission connected.
AC RTE Efficiency: 80-92%
Cycle Life: 3,000 - 10,000 cycles

10 - 20 years

Technology Readiness Level (TRL): 9 - Deployed
Installed Capacity: >10 GW