Spinning Reserves

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Spinning Reserves are generation capacity that is already operating and synchronized to the system that can increase generation or decrease charging usually within 10 minutes.

Spinning reserve is utilized primarily to protect against contingencies, notably unplanned outages of major facilities such as transmission lines or generators. Spinning Reserve is acquired from units that are synchronized and can provide full awarded capacity in (usually) 10 minutes. When dispatched, the resource must be capable of sustaining its awarded capacity for (usually) 30 minutes to one hour. Payments are for capacity reserved ($/kW).

A DER providing spinning reserves is modeled to reserve its awarded power capacity and corresponding energy capability for the awarded hours. To fulfill spinning reserve requirements when called, the ability to adjust the scheduled power level of the DER mix is guaranteed by the optimization. By reserving the ability to change its power capacity, the DER mix makes sure that, when called for spinning reserve, it will be able to reduce its charging power and increase its discharging/generating power based on the amount of spinning reserves it is providing and sustain this for the duration required by the market’s rules.

  1. Inputs
      1. Growth
Tag Key Description
SR growth This input grows the 'SR Price ($/kW)' timeseries input.
      1. Duration
Tag Key Description
SR duration The duration of the SR service represents the continuous energy requirement for participating DERs. In other words, if a DER is called to provide power to fulfill its SR obligations, it must be able to deliver the power it promised for this duration.
      1. Timeseries Constraints
Tag Key Description
SR ts_constraints This input determines if the Minimum Spinning Reserves and Maximum Spinning Reserves timeseries inputs are included as constraints in the optimization.
  1. Optimization Details
    1. Objectives

Spinning reserves modifies the objective function by adding the term Spinning Reserves * Spinning Reserves Price * dt

    1. Constraints

Spinning reserves applies a constraint requiring the DERs to maintain the ability to continuously provide energy for the duration required.

Spinning reserves also ensure that, should the DERs be called to provide power for spinning reserves, that the DERs can feasibly provide the power without overlapping with any other service.