Technologies

From Storage Wiki
Jump to navigation Jump to search


This page will organize all DERs available in DER-VET.

Each technology option is unique and some of them interact in unique ways (e.g. solar plus storage or chillers plus boilers plus combined heat and power). Understanding the technology models is critical for structuring a meaningful, representative case in DER-VET.

Inputs Common to all Technologies

Name

Tag Key Description
* name This provides a unique identifier to each instance of each technology. If multiple instances of a single technology are present (e.g. two storage systems), they can be distinguished by their name. Names should be unique.

Startup Time

Tag Key Description
* startup_time This is the length in minutes it takes for the technology to start generating and start supplying their minimum power. This is used to constrain participation in spinning reserves and non-spinning reserves.

Capital Cost

Tag Key Description
* ccost This is the component of the total capital costs ($) that do not scale with power capacity or energy capacity. These costs will be applied to the financial results no matter what size the DER ends up being, including 0.

The total capital cost of a DER is ccost + ccost_kW * kW_rated (+ ccost_kWh * kWh_rated).

Capital Cost per kW

Tag Key Description
* ccost_kW This is the component of the total capital costs ($/kW) that scale with the power capacity of the DER.

The total capital cost of a DER is ccost + ccost_kW * kW_rated (+ ccost_kWh * kWh_rated).

Capital Cost per kWh

Tag Key Description
* ccost_kWh This is the component of the total capital costs ($/kWh) that scale with the energy capacity of the DER.

The total capital cost of a DER is ccost + ccost_kW * kW_rated (+ ccost_kWh * kWh_rated).

Startup Costs

Tag Key Description
* startup This binary (0 or 1) input determines whether or not to apply startup costs to a DER. Startup costs are applied to the benefit-cost analysis and impact the dispatch optimization. Any time a DER goes from zero power to non-zero power, a startup cost is applied.

Fixed Operation and Maintenance Costs

Tag Key Description
* fixedOM or fixed_om_cost The fixed operating costs are applied every year the technology is present in the DER mix. They are not modified by the operation of the DER.

Fixed operating costs can include warranty/performance guarantee costs or other ongoing costs that are fully known before the start of the project.

Variable Operation and Maintenance Costs

Tag Key Description
* OMexpenses or variable_om_cost The variable operating costs are applied per MWh of energy generated/discharged from the DER. Charging has no impact (but any energy charged must be eventually discharged!). A nonzero variable O&M cost suppresses storage system cycling or generation operation in DER-VET by directly incurring a penalty in the optimization.

MACRS Term

Tag Key Description
* macrs_term In the United States, the modified accelerated cost recovery system (MACRS) determines how asset depreciation can be calculated for tax deductions (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MACRS). This input should match the MACRS schedule that most closely applies to the asset being modeled.

Minimum Rated Capacity

Tag Key Description
* min_rated_capacity Not to be confused with a DER's minimum generating power, this input constrains a size optimization problem. When doing size optimization, the DER's power capacity will never be less than this number.

This can be set to 0 to ignore.

Maximum Rated Capacity

Tag Key Description
* max_rated_capacity Not to be confused with a DER's maximum generating power, this input constrains a size optimization problem. When doing size optimization, the DER's power capacity will never be more than this number.

This can be set to 0 to ignore and apply no maximum.


Construction Year

Tag Key Description
* construction_year This is the year that a DER's capital costs will be applied to the benefit-cost analysis, assumed to be the year that construction begins. Depending on the asset type, this could be several years before the equipment is operational.

Operation Year

Tag Key Description
* operation_year This is the year that a DER will start providing value through operation. Before this year, the DER will not provide any power, participate in any services, or do anything.

Expected Lifetime

Tag Key Description
* expected_lifetime How many years will the technology last?

For energy storage systems with degradation turned on, DER-VET will use the expected lifetime for size optimization (ignoring degradation). In this case the expected lifetime should be checked against degradation results from DER-VET to ensure they are close.

Replaceable

Tag Key Description
* replaceable This binary (0 or 1) input determines if a DER will be replaced (1) or not (0) when it reaches its end of life, whether by degradation or by reaching its expected lifetime.


Decommissioning Cost

Tag Key Description
* decommissioning_cost This cost is applied to the benefit-cost analysis when a non-replaceable DER reaches its end of life or the end of the analysis window is reached. This can be negative to account for recycling value.

Salvage Value

Tag Key Description
* salvage_value Salvage value is applied at the end of the analysis window to capture any remaining useful life in DERs that have not reached their end of life. The "sunk cost" option means that there is no end of analysis value (salvage value = 0), "linear salvage value" means DER-VET will calculate salvage value by multiplying the technology's capital cost by (remaining life/total life), or simply input a $ value to specify the salvage value of the technology.

Replacement Construction Time

Tag Key Description
* replacement_construction_time How many years the DER takes to be replaced. DER-VET assumes the DER will be in operation when being replaced - this input is only used to determine how many years in advance to apply a replacement cost before the replacement is actually completed.

Replacement Cost

Tag Key Description
* rcost Similar to a DER's capital cost, this input represents the fixed portion of a DER's replacement cost (does not scale with power or energy capacity). This cost will be applied to the benefit-cost analysis before the equipment is replaced (the number of years before is indicated by the replacement construction time).

This input will be escalated by the DER's technology escalation rate to calculate the future-year nominal cost of replacement.

Replacement Cost per kW

Tag Key Description
* rcost_kW Similar to a DER's capital cost per kW, this input represents the portion of a DER's replacement cost that scales with the DER's power capacity. This cost will be applied to the benefit-cost analysis before the equipment is replaced (the number of years before is indicated by the replacement construction time).

This input will be escalated by the DER's technology escalation rate to calculate the future-year nominal cost of replacement.

Replacement Cost per kWh

Tag Key Description
* rcost_kWh Similar to a DER's capital cost per kW, this input represents the portion of a DER's replacement cost that scales with the DER's energy capacity. This cost will be applied to the benefit-cost analysis before the equipment is replaced (the number of years before is indicated by the replacement construction time).

This input will be escalated by the DER's technology escalation rate to calculate the future-year nominal cost of replacement.

Annual Charge Rate

Tag Key Description
* acr This is a financial parameter that is only used when the ecc_mode is 1. This input determines the fraction of capital costs that are attributable to any year of the technology's life.


Technology Escalation Rate

Tag Key Description
* ter This is a financial parameter that is used to escalate the cost of a technology over time (negative if the cost is decreasing) in nominal terms for economic carrying cost calculations and replacement costs.

Economic Carrying Cost Percent

Tag Key Description
* ecc% The economic carrying cost percent is a financial parameter only used when ecc_mode is 1. This is usually calculated based on the annual charge rate, technology escalation rate, discount rate, and equipment lifetime. (see benefit cost analysis)

Electric Technologies

Energy Storage


Solar PV (and wind)


Internal Combustion Engine


Controllable Load (Demand Response)


Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES)


Electric Vehicle


Electric and Thermal Technologies

Combined Heat and Power (CHP)

Thermal Technologies

Boiler

Chiller